Kingdom of sports kursplan

kingdom of sports kursplan

Unser neuer Kursplan. Jetzt mit Faszientraining und Bodyvive. Testet die Vielfalt und spürt den Unterschied. Wir freuen uns auf euch. Euer Team aus Bad. Jan. Sport, aber nicht alleine! Sport in der Gruppe?Kein Problem - Nutze unsere Kursangebote! Unsere Kurse. © Kingdom of Sports. Nov. 40 Likes, 3 Comments - kingdom of sports Hameln (@kingdomofsportshameln) on Instagram: “Ho ho ho Aktualisierter Kursplan ab Montag.

Natural gas was discovered in Jordan in , however, the estimated size of the reserve discovered was about billion cubic feet , a minuscule quantity compared with its oil-rich neighbours.

Regional instability over the decades halted oil and gas supply to the kingdom from various sources, making it incur billions of dollars in losses.

Jordan built a liquified natural gas port in Aqaba in to temporarily substitute the supply, while formulating a strategy to rationalize energy consumption and to diversify its energy sources.

Jordan has the 5th largest oil-shale reserves in the world, which could be commercially exploited in the central and northwestern regions of the country.

The extraction of oil-shale had been delayed a couple of years due to technological difficulties; and the relatively higher costs.

The original plan involved constructing two MW reactors but has been scrapped due to financial constraints. The most promising segment of this sector is construction.

Petra Engineering Industries Company, which is considered to be one of the main pillars of Jordanian industry, has gained international recognition with its air-conditioning units reaching NASA.

It manufactures all types of military products, many of which are presented at the bi-annually held international military exhibition SOFEX.

This growth is occurring across multiple industries, including information and communications technology ICT and nuclear technology.

More than companies are active in telecom, information technology and video game development. There are companies operating in active technologies and start-up companies.

Nuclear science and technology is also expanding. Jordan is a home to 2,, Palestinian refugees as of December ; most of them, but not all, were granted Jordanian citizenship.

In the past, Jordan had given many Palestinian refugees citizenship, however recently Jordanian citizenship is given only in rare cases.

West Bank Palestinians with family in Jordan or Jordanian citizenship were issued yellow cards guaranteeing them all the rights of Jordanian citizenship if requested.

Up to 1,, Iraqis moved to Jordan following the Iraq War in , [] and most of them have returned. In , their number in Jordan was , The kingdom has continued to demonstrate hospitality, despite the substantial strain the flux of Syrian refugees places on the country.

The effects are largely affecting Jordanian communities, as the vast majority of Syrian refugees do not live in camps.

The refugee crisis effects include competition for job opportunities, water resources and other state provided services, along with the strain on the national infrastructure.

In , there were up to , Assyrian Christians ; most are Eastern Aramaic speaking refugees from Iraq. There are around 1.

Sunni Islam is the dominant religion in Jordan. Many Shia are Iraqi and Lebanese refugees. Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, dating as early as the 1st century AD after the crucifixion of Jesus.

The study excluded minority Christian groups and the thousands of western, Iraqi and Syrian Christians residing in Jordan. The official language is Modern Standard Arabic , a literary language taught in the schools.

Jordanian Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English , though without official status, is widely spoken throughout the country and is the de facto language of commerce and banking, as well as a co-official status in the education sector; almost all university-level classes are held in English and almost all public schools teach English along with Standard Arabic.

The largest museum in Jordan is The Jordan Museum. Museums outside Amman include the Aqaba Archaeological Museum. Music in Jordan is now developing with a lot of new bands and artists, who are now popular in the Middle East.

Football is the most popular sport in Jordan. This was the highest that Jordan had advanced in the World Cup qualifying rounds since Less common sports are gaining popularity.

Rugby is increasing in popularity, a Rugby Union is recognised by the Jordan Olympic Committee which supervises three national teams.

Local basketball teams include: As the 8th largest producer of olives in the world, olive oil is the main cooking oil in Jordan. Ful medames is another well-known appetiser.

A typical Jordanian meze often contains koubba maqliya , labaneh , baba ghanoush , tabbouleh , olives and pickles. Jordanian wine and beer are also sometimes used.

The same dishes, served without alcoholic drinks, can also be termed "muqabbilat" starters in Arabic. The most distinctive Jordanian dish is mansaf , the national dish of Jordan.

The dish is a symbol for Jordanian hospitality and is influenced by the Bedouin culture. Mansaf is eaten on different occasions such as funerals, weddings and on religious holidays.

It consists of a plate of rice with meat that was boiled in thick yogurt, sprayed with pine nuts and sometimes herbs. Life expectancy in Jordan was around Jordan prides itself on its health services, some of the best in the region.

On 1 June , Jordan Hospital as the biggest private hospital was the first general specialty hospital to gain the international accreditation JCAHO.

The Jordanian educational system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam Tawjihi exams.

In Jordan there are researchers per million people, while the world average is per million. Jordan has 10 public universities, 19 private universities and 54 community colleges, of which 14 are public, 24 private and others affiliated with the Jordanian Armed Forces , the Civil Defense Department, the Ministry of Health and UNRWA.

An additional 20, Jordanians pursue higher education abroad primarily in the United States and Europe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Jordan disambiguation. Arab country in Western Asia.

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Retrieved 4 June The Organization of Islamic Cooperation: In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams.

British Prime Minister John Major was the political leader most closely identified with promotion of sports. In he argued:.

The British showed a more profound interest in sports, and in greater variety, than any rival. This was chiefly due to the development of the railway network in the UK before other nations.

Allowing for national newspapers, and travel around the country far earlier than in other places. They gave pride of place to such moral issues as sportsmanship and fair play.

Football proved highly attractive to the urban working classes, which introduced the rowdy spectator to the sports world. In some sports, there was significant controversy in the fight for amateur purity especially in rugby and rowing.

New games became popular almost overnight, including golf, lawn tennis, cycling and hockey. Women were much more likely to enter these sports than the old established ones.

The aristocracy and landed gentry, with their ironclad control over land rights, dominated hunting, shooting, fishing and horse racing. Political responsibility for sport is a devolved matter.

As England has no parliament of her own, the United Kingdom Department of Culture, Media and Sport which is headed by a cabinet minister -though the Minister for Sport and Tourism is not in the cabinet- deals with English sport in addition to United Kingdom-wide sports.

The Minister sets out the strategic policy objectives for Sport Wales , who are responsible for the development and promotion of sport and active lifestyles in Wales.

As the Northern Ireland Assembly was reduced in size and a number of departments removed it is not currently March clear who holds political responsibility for Sport in Northern Ireland.

However virtually every team sport is organised on either an all Ireland or United Kingdom-wide basis, with football and netball being the only exceptions.

The Sport and Recreation Alliance is the representative body for sports organisations in the United Kingdom, including federations, players associations, mabagers associations and regional organisations.

A large majority of the funding for elite sport in the United Kingdom is commercially generated, but this is concentrated heavily on a few sports.

Other major sports have a turnover in low nine figures or the tens of millions. Athletics, and also most sports outside the top ten or so in popularity, are heavily dependent on public funding.

The government agency which funnels this is UK Sport , which has affiliates in each of the home nations, for example Sport England. These agencies are also responsible for distributing money raised for sport by the National Lottery.

In , when it was announced London would host the Games, UK Sport announced funding plans which were more focused than ever before on rewarding sports which have delivered Olympic success, and as a corollary penalising those which have not.

UK Sport also provides money for the recreational side of the main team sports, even football. Other sports benefit from special financial provision.

British tennis is subsidised by the profits of the Wimbledon Championships , which are in the tens of millions of pounds each year.

Horse racing benefits from a levy on betting. Following the Budget from 21 March there will be only few tax breaks to British sport in the near future.

A MORI poll found: The British media is dominated by United Kingdom-wide outlets, with local media playing a much smaller role. Traditionally the BBC played a dominant role in televising sport , providing extensive high-quality advertisement free coverage and free publicity, in exchange for being granted broadcast rights for low fees.

ITV broadcast a smaller portfolio of events. In the early s this arrangement was shaken up by the arrival of pay-TV. BSkyB based its early marketing largely on its acquisition of top division English league football, which was renamed The Premiership as part of the deal.

It has subsequently acquired many more top rights in other sports. However, Sky tends to focus on competitions which can fill its specialist sports channels on a regular basis, and many events are still shown on free to air television, especially annual and quadrennial events such as Wimbledon and the Olympics.

This is often used when all four nations have an International football match on the same evening, but can also be used to show minority interest sports in the country where they are most appreciated for example BBC One Scotland may show the shinty cup final, while BBC One Wales shows a rugby union match between two Welsh sides.

There are also regulations which prevent certain listed events from being sold exclusively to pay television. Radio sports coverage is also important.

It now has a commercial rival called TalkSport , but this has not acquired anywhere near as many exclusive contracts as Sky Sports.

BBC Local Radio also provides extensive coverage of sport, giving more exposure to second-tier clubs which get limited national coverage. All of the national newspapers except the Financial Times devote many pages to sport every day.

Local newspapers cover local clubs at all levels and there are hundreds of weekly and monthly sports magazines. Four sports in the United Kingdom operate high-profile professional leagues.

Football is the most popular sport and is played from August to May. Rugby league is traditionally a winter sport, but since the late s the elite competition has been played in the summer to minimise competition for attention with football.

Rugby union is also a winter sport. Cricket is played in the Summer, from April to September. The modern global game of football evolved out of traditional football games played in England in the 19th century and today is the highest profile sport in the United Kingdom by a very wide margin.

Each of the four countries in the UK organises its own football league; there are however a few teams who play in another country.

The only major national team competition won by a Home Nation is the World Cup , which England hosted and won, though clubs in both the Scottish and English domestic leagues have had success in European club competitions, most notably the UEFA Champions League or its predecessor the European Cup.

Liverpool , with 5 wins, is the most successful English, and British, team in European football, while the competition has also been won by Manchester United 3 times in total, Nottingham Forest twice, and Aston Villa , from Birmingham and Chelsea from London once each.

The Welsh football league system includes the Welsh Premier League and regional leagues. These leagues have a relatively low profile as rugby union is the national sport of Wales and the top three Welsh football clubs play in the English league system; in addition, one Welsh Premiership club, The New Saints , play their home matches on the English side of the border in Oswestry.

Windsor Park , Linfield F. England and Scotland have both produced winners of each of these competitions. For years until , England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland competed annually in the British Home Championship but these ended for a variety of reasons.

When the idea was first proposed to bring back the competition, the English FA had reservations, and so it was contested by the other three home nations and the Republic of Ireland, who were the first host nation and winners.

The tournament was intended to be played biennially to prevent fixture congestion during World Cup qualification years with the event to be held at the Millennium stadium in Cardiff, the tournament was cancelled after the first year as very few fans were prepared to travel and the tournament did not create the expected revenues.

Scotland and Wales were drawn against each other in World Cup qualification anyway, and a th anniversary friendly was organised between Scotland and England to celebrate the anniversary of the formation of the English F.

No United Kingdom national team is regularly formed for football events in the Olympics. The early reference to the separate national identities in the United Kingdom is perhaps best illustrated by the game of cricket.

Cricket is claimed to have been invented in England. The national sport of England is cricket, but England has no team of its own, instead fielding a joint team with Wales.

Each summer two foreign national teams visit and play seven Test matches and numerous One Day Internationals , and in the British winter the team tours abroad.

The highest profile rival of the team is the Australian team , with which it competes for The Ashes , one of the most famous trophies in British sport.

There are eighteen professional county clubs , seventeen of them in England and one in Wales. Each summer the county clubs compete in the first class County Championship , which consists of two leagues of nine teams and in which matches are played over four days.

The same teams also play the one day National League , a one-day knock out competition called the Friends Provident Trophy , and the short-form Twenty20 Cup.

Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. It is by no means equal to football in finance, attendance or coverage, but it has a high profile nonetheless.

It is probably the second most widely covered sport in England and third most widely covered sport in Wales and the fortunes of the England team are closely followed by many people who never attend a live game.

Scotland and Ireland both have their own cricket teams, but the game is neither as popular nor their teams as successful as the English and Welsh team.

Ireland did not receive Test status until , and Scotland still does not have Test status. Since Ireland did not play its first Test until , Scotland still does not play Tests, and both have only recently started to play in full One Day Internationals, many Scots and Irish previously played in, and captained, the England and Wales side; the current side for example includes Eoin Morgan , a Dublin-born cricketer who has represented Ireland against England at the Cricket World Cup, and captained England against Ireland in Like association football, rugby union and rugby league both developed from traditional British football games in the 19th century.

Rugby football was codified in Dissatisfaction with the governance of the sport led, in , to a number of prominent clubs establishing what would become rugby league.

The estranged clubs, based in mainly working class industrial regions of northern England, had wished to be allowed to compensate their players for missing work to play matches but they had been opposed by those clubs that were predominantly middle class and often based in the south of the country.

Subsequently, rugby league developed somewhat different rules. For much of the 20th century there was considerable antagonism towards rugby league from rugby union.

One Member of Parliament described it as "one of the longest and daftest grievances in history" with anyone over the age of 18 associated with rugby league being banned forever from rugby union.

All four teams are among the top ten in global rugby union. The Six Nations Championship played between the Home Nations, Italy and France is the premier international tournament in the northern hemisphere.

The Triple Crown is awarded to any of the Home Nations who beats the other three in that tournament. Games are also often played against the "Southern Hemisphere" quartet of South Africa , Australia , New Zealand , and Argentina —as well as other rugby playing countries.

England won the Rugby World Cup , the first victory in the competition by a British team or, for that matter, any Northern Hemisphere country , and were runners-up to Australia in and South Africa in In , Wales achieved a best of third place and in , Scotland a best of fourth place.

Ireland has not progressed beyond the quarter finals. Rugby union is generally regarded as the national sport of Wales. England organises its own national league in Premiership Rugby , which launched the Premiership Rugby Cup in —19 to replace the former Anglo-Welsh Cup , which had begun as an England-only competition but included Welsh teams from until its demise in The other Home Nations now have a single professional league, currently known as the Guinness Pro14 , that also includes teams from Italy and South Africa.

Attendances at club rugby in England have risen strongly since the sport went professional; by contrast, the professional era has had a traumatic effect on the traditional structure of club rugby in Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

There was some talk of the regions being redrawn, with the North being divided in two and the South being absorbed into the West and East regions, but two Italian sides instead took the vacated places, and still later the competition added two South African sides.

All of the home nations play in large, state-of-the-art venues. The four home nations also field national sevens teams.

In a contrast with football, the participation of Great Britain sevens teams at the Olympics was endorsed by World Rugby then known as the International Rugby Board in Overall rugby league is a smaller sport than rugby union in the United Kingdom , but it draws healthy crowds in its heartlands in Yorkshire and North West England , and is popular with armchair sports fans nationwide.

Before the reorganisation, London Broncos competed in Super League. Until , automatic promotion and relegation existed between Super League and the Championship when it was replaced by three-year licences for clubs to play in the former.

Promotion and relegation returned to Super League and the Championship in The main knock-out competition is the Challenge Cup , which also includes clubs from France and Canada , and in the past has also included clubs from Russia.

Rugby league is also played as an amateur sport, especially in the heartland areas, where the game is administered by BARLA.

Since the rugby union authorities ended the discrimination against playing rugby league amateur numbers in the sport have increased, particularly outside the heartland areas.

Through competitions such as the Rugby League Conference the sport is heading towards a national spread, at amateur level at least.

For many tournaments the home nations are combined to compete as Great Britain. The Great Britain team won the Rugby league World Cup in , and , but England and Wales now compete separately in this tournament and Australia have won every World Cup since except in , when they were upset in the final by New Zealand.

The Great Britain team is retained for some competitions, such as with Australia and New Zealand in the recently founded Tri-Nations competition, and in test series such as the Ashes against Australia and the Baskerville Shield against New Zealand.

In , the United Kingdom hosted the Rugby league World Cup for the 5th time, with England and Wales officially serving as joint hosts.

Ice hockey is the only team sport to have a United Kingdom-wide league with at least one team from every nation. It has a long history in the United Kingdom and it is reasonably well supported, with the larger teams attracting thousands of fans to every game.

Media support for ice hockey has improved on a national level, although the majority of news is still found on the internet. Following this Premier Sports picked up the mantle for a number of seasons.

The league currently ranks 12th in Europe. Gaelic games such as Gaelic football and hurling are organised on an all-Ireland basis and are highly popular in Northern Ireland, with a smaller presence in Great Britain.

They are regulated by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Antrim are the only Northern Ireland team in the first tier.

The female equivalent of hurling is called camogie and is played by teams from Northern Irish and London. Gaelic handball with its roots in Scotland is still played at a competitive level in Northern Ireland.

Composite rules shinty-hurling is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international matches between shinty players and hurling players.

Field hockey is the second most popular team recreational sport in the United Kingdom. While hockey receives widespread television coverage during the Olympics, coverage outside that is small, especially relative to its participation level.

Shinty or camanachd is an amateur sport indigenous to the Scottish Highlands. Although it is mostly restricted to this area it is highly popular within the Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in what is the most sparsely populated region of the United Kingdom.

It is administered by the Camanachd Association. Its main trophies are the Camanachd Cup [28] and the Premier Division.

There are clubs in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London however and it was once played throughout Scotland and England until the early 20th Century.

Australian rules football is a growing amateur sport in the United Kingdom. The Grand Final is an event that regularly attracts growing audience of up to 5, Great Britain has a national team the British Bulldogs , it regularly competes in international matches and has competed in the Australian Football International Cup since its inception in Exhibition matches are regularly scheduled for The Oval in London, and despite the fact that few Britons know of the sport, the most recent match attracted a record crowd of 18, [2].

Premier, 1 and 2, with Premier and 1 divided into a North and South conference with Coventry being the Most Southern of the Northern teams while division 2 is further split into 4 conferences, North becoming North Scotland and Carlisle and Central and the South being split into East and West.

The Championship participants are promoted to the divisions above and the lowest-ranking teams in each division are relegated.

Previously, many of these teams competed in the BAFL which entered administration in The national team is known as the GB Lions and represents the United Kingdom in international gridiron.

Despite the minor status of the sport in the United Kingdom, the NFL has played at least one game each season at Wembley Stadium since Wembley has hosted multiple games in each season since , and the series has since expanded to include other locations in London.

Twickenham began hosting NFL games in , and the primary site for London games will switch from Wembley to the new Tottenham Hotspur stadium once it opens in Once invented in England, bandy has been virtually unknown in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th Century, but this hockey sport played on ice with rules similar to football has been taken up again.

There are plans to form a national team for the Bandy World Championship. Basketball is a minor sport in the United Kingdom.

While following an American franchise format rather than using promotion and relegation like most European leagues, the majority of recent additions have come from the English league.

As with football, the home nations teams were encouraged to work together for the Olympics, while British international basketball teams have not achieved any major successes since then, FIBA officials stated that if they re-entered the European competition after the Olympics as individual nations, they will be treated as unranked newcomers.

As with American football the NBA have arranged regular season matches in London for several years now, the most recent being a game between the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers at the O2 Arena , London.

The idea of a single team or pair of teams relocating to London and Berlin was dismissed as uneconomical due to the distances involved for away fixtures.

A piece on the web outlet of US sports media giant ESPN explored why British basketball has so far failed to develop players to the degree of countries such as France, Germany and Australia.

A survey by Sport England found that basketball was the third most-played sport among the 14—25 age group in England, just behind rugby union in numbers—but both sports combined have less than one-third the participation of football.

Another issue is politically related. The British government provided many sports, including basketball, with major funding in advance of the Olympics.

The sport also currently lacks private funding, with Amaechi claiming that many British BBL players are not paid living wages. Finally, until very recent years, British players were reluctant to develop themselves in the more competitive leagues of continental Europe.

Motorcycle speedway , usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale.

The United Kingdom has three domestic leagues, the Elite League. The Speedway Grand Prix is the main world championship for standalone riders with an event taking place in Cardiff each year.

Rounders is a bat-and-ball base-running game played on a diamond. A maximum of nine players are allowed to field at any time.

Touch or Touch Rugby is a limited-contact sport variant of rugby football. It is typically played with a mixed-gender team of six three men and three women , with single-gender and age group variants.

Teams play on a 70m by 50m pitch with rolling substitutions. There are no set pieces e. Scores are made by grounding the ball over the scoreline as in Rugby Union or League; a team is allowed six touches in possession to attempt a score before the ball is turned over to the opposition.

More than a thousand players across over 40 clubs [37] are registered to play in these competitions.

There are also substantial local and regional competitions, many run with the involvement of O2 Touch. Athletics does not have a very high profile in Britain on a week-in week-out basis, but it leaps to prominence during major championships.

The level of attention received by successful British athletes is illustrated by the fact that athletes have won far more BBC Sports Personality of the Year awards than practitioners of any other sport.

There are also semi-independent athletics associations in each of the home nations. Over the last few decades British athletes have usually won between one and three gold medals at the Olympics; the Games in London saw three British athletes win four golds single golds by Jessica Ennis and Greg Rutherford , and two by Mo Farah.

However, there remain serious concerns about the depth of the sport in Britain, with the number of club athletes reportedly in decline.

Two high-profile annual athletics events are the London Marathon and the Great North Run , which is a half marathon. The United Kingdom played a key role in the evolution of modern boxing , with the codification of the rules of the sport known as the Queensberry Rules , named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in Some of the best contemporary British boxers included; super-middleweight champion Joe Calzaghe , featherweight champion Naseem Hamed , and heavyweight champion Lennox Lewis.

British professional boxing offers some of the largest purses outside the United States to a few elite professional boxers who become nationally known.

British heavyweight contenders are especially popular, but most British world champions have fought in the middle weight bracket.

The governing body of professional boxing is the British Boxing Board of Control. It is generally felt that British professional boxing is in decline in the early years of the 21st century.

The reasons for this include: Amateur boxing is governed by separate bodies in each home nation. At Olympic, World and European events, home nation boxers with the exception of N.

Ireland compete under the GB podium squad banner. The amateur sport is steadily recovering from a decline that reached a peak in the late s, with dramatic increases in boxer numbers driven by recent GB podium squad success, most notably at the London Olympics.

Mixed martial arts MMA has come a huge way. The sport was on the verge of being sent into oblivion in the early s but has since clawed its way back and become one of the most popular sports in the USA.

It is hard to pinpoint the main reason why exactly this has happened. The stereotype of extreme violence that they have been unable to shake off?

However, things slowly started to change when Michael Bisping came onto the scene and won The Ultimate Fighter 3. The 2 winners of The Ultimate Fighter: A Champion Will Be Crowned.

Britain had limited success with cycle racing in the 20th century. This has changed when the performance director of British Cycling Peter Keen formerly coach of Chris Boardman and later appointed in as performance director with UK Sport obtained lottery funding which helped cycling at both grass roots and at an elite level.

The first fruits of the programme were harvested in Other successes include Rebecca Romero and Victoria Pendleton. This newfound British success continued with Chris Froome winning four of the next five Tours , , , , followed by Geraint Thomas taking victory in Emma Pooley won the world road time trial championship in Cycle racing is organised by British Cycling , who govern most cycling events in the United Kingdom and organise the national team.

The success of British Cycling and Team Sky has increased dramatically the popularity of the sport in the UK which has brought in more sponsors into the sport.

A lot of cyclists take part in the many sportives organized all over the country including the hugely popular Ride London event which.

Modern competitive golf originated in Scotland. In the early 20th century British golfers were the best in the world, winning nearly all of the US Open championships before World War I.

American golfers later became dominant, but Britain has continued to produce leading golfers, with an especially strong period in the s and s.

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The study excluded minority Christian groups and the thousands of western, Iraqi and Syrian Christians residing in Jordan. The official language is Modern Standard Arabic , a literary language taught in the schools.

Jordanian Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English , though without official status, is widely spoken throughout the country and is the de facto language of commerce and banking, as well as a co-official status in the education sector; almost all university-level classes are held in English and almost all public schools teach English along with Standard Arabic.

The largest museum in Jordan is The Jordan Museum. Museums outside Amman include the Aqaba Archaeological Museum. Music in Jordan is now developing with a lot of new bands and artists, who are now popular in the Middle East.

Football is the most popular sport in Jordan. This was the highest that Jordan had advanced in the World Cup qualifying rounds since Less common sports are gaining popularity.

Rugby is increasing in popularity, a Rugby Union is recognised by the Jordan Olympic Committee which supervises three national teams. Local basketball teams include: As the 8th largest producer of olives in the world, olive oil is the main cooking oil in Jordan.

Ful medames is another well-known appetiser. A typical Jordanian meze often contains koubba maqliya , labaneh , baba ghanoush , tabbouleh , olives and pickles.

Jordanian wine and beer are also sometimes used. The same dishes, served without alcoholic drinks, can also be termed "muqabbilat" starters in Arabic.

The most distinctive Jordanian dish is mansaf , the national dish of Jordan. The dish is a symbol for Jordanian hospitality and is influenced by the Bedouin culture.

Mansaf is eaten on different occasions such as funerals, weddings and on religious holidays. It consists of a plate of rice with meat that was boiled in thick yogurt, sprayed with pine nuts and sometimes herbs.

Life expectancy in Jordan was around Jordan prides itself on its health services, some of the best in the region. On 1 June , Jordan Hospital as the biggest private hospital was the first general specialty hospital to gain the international accreditation JCAHO.

The Jordanian educational system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam Tawjihi exams.

In Jordan there are researchers per million people, while the world average is per million. Jordan has 10 public universities, 19 private universities and 54 community colleges, of which 14 are public, 24 private and others affiliated with the Jordanian Armed Forces , the Civil Defense Department, the Ministry of Health and UNRWA.

An additional 20, Jordanians pursue higher education abroad primarily in the United States and Europe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Jordan disambiguation. Arab country in Western Asia. Timeline of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

King Abdullah II , Monarch since Omar Razzaz , Prime Minister since Largest cities or towns in Jordan [1]. Map Governorate Capital Population Syria.

Foreign relations of Jordan. Science and technology in Jordan. Marsa Zayed mosque in Aqaba. An eastern Orthodox church during a snowstorm in Amman.

Jordanian art , Cinema of Jordan , and Music of Jordan. Health in Jordan and Education in Jordan. Jordan portal Middle East portal.

Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. Retrieved 12 June Jordan Department of Statistics.

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Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 2 October Management and International Business Issues in Jordan.

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Muslims, Mongols and the struggle against the Crusades. Retrieved 16 June Scientists discover oldest evidence of bread".

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The Impact of Ottoman Reforms. Retrieved 19 June Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 5 July The Making of the Modern Near East Retrieved 23 July Lawrence of Arabia and the Arab Revolt".

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Antiker Wasserbau , pp. Retrieved 3 December Hala Akhbar in Arabic. Retrieved 10 January Until , automatic promotion and relegation existed between Super League and the Championship when it was replaced by three-year licences for clubs to play in the former.

Promotion and relegation returned to Super League and the Championship in The main knock-out competition is the Challenge Cup , which also includes clubs from France and Canada , and in the past has also included clubs from Russia.

Rugby league is also played as an amateur sport, especially in the heartland areas, where the game is administered by BARLA.

Since the rugby union authorities ended the discrimination against playing rugby league amateur numbers in the sport have increased, particularly outside the heartland areas.

Through competitions such as the Rugby League Conference the sport is heading towards a national spread, at amateur level at least.

For many tournaments the home nations are combined to compete as Great Britain. The Great Britain team won the Rugby league World Cup in , and , but England and Wales now compete separately in this tournament and Australia have won every World Cup since except in , when they were upset in the final by New Zealand.

The Great Britain team is retained for some competitions, such as with Australia and New Zealand in the recently founded Tri-Nations competition, and in test series such as the Ashes against Australia and the Baskerville Shield against New Zealand.

In , the United Kingdom hosted the Rugby league World Cup for the 5th time, with England and Wales officially serving as joint hosts.

Ice hockey is the only team sport to have a United Kingdom-wide league with at least one team from every nation. It has a long history in the United Kingdom and it is reasonably well supported, with the larger teams attracting thousands of fans to every game.

Media support for ice hockey has improved on a national level, although the majority of news is still found on the internet. Following this Premier Sports picked up the mantle for a number of seasons.

The league currently ranks 12th in Europe. Gaelic games such as Gaelic football and hurling are organised on an all-Ireland basis and are highly popular in Northern Ireland, with a smaller presence in Great Britain.

They are regulated by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Antrim are the only Northern Ireland team in the first tier. The female equivalent of hurling is called camogie and is played by teams from Northern Irish and London.

Gaelic handball with its roots in Scotland is still played at a competitive level in Northern Ireland.

Composite rules shinty-hurling is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international matches between shinty players and hurling players. Field hockey is the second most popular team recreational sport in the United Kingdom.

While hockey receives widespread television coverage during the Olympics, coverage outside that is small, especially relative to its participation level.

Shinty or camanachd is an amateur sport indigenous to the Scottish Highlands. Although it is mostly restricted to this area it is highly popular within the Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in what is the most sparsely populated region of the United Kingdom.

It is administered by the Camanachd Association. Its main trophies are the Camanachd Cup [28] and the Premier Division. There are clubs in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London however and it was once played throughout Scotland and England until the early 20th Century.

Australian rules football is a growing amateur sport in the United Kingdom. The Grand Final is an event that regularly attracts growing audience of up to 5, Great Britain has a national team the British Bulldogs , it regularly competes in international matches and has competed in the Australian Football International Cup since its inception in Exhibition matches are regularly scheduled for The Oval in London, and despite the fact that few Britons know of the sport, the most recent match attracted a record crowd of 18, [2].

Premier, 1 and 2, with Premier and 1 divided into a North and South conference with Coventry being the Most Southern of the Northern teams while division 2 is further split into 4 conferences, North becoming North Scotland and Carlisle and Central and the South being split into East and West.

The Championship participants are promoted to the divisions above and the lowest-ranking teams in each division are relegated.

Previously, many of these teams competed in the BAFL which entered administration in The national team is known as the GB Lions and represents the United Kingdom in international gridiron.

Despite the minor status of the sport in the United Kingdom, the NFL has played at least one game each season at Wembley Stadium since Wembley has hosted multiple games in each season since , and the series has since expanded to include other locations in London.

Twickenham began hosting NFL games in , and the primary site for London games will switch from Wembley to the new Tottenham Hotspur stadium once it opens in Once invented in England, bandy has been virtually unknown in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th Century, but this hockey sport played on ice with rules similar to football has been taken up again.

There are plans to form a national team for the Bandy World Championship. Basketball is a minor sport in the United Kingdom. While following an American franchise format rather than using promotion and relegation like most European leagues, the majority of recent additions have come from the English league.

As with football, the home nations teams were encouraged to work together for the Olympics, while British international basketball teams have not achieved any major successes since then, FIBA officials stated that if they re-entered the European competition after the Olympics as individual nations, they will be treated as unranked newcomers.

As with American football the NBA have arranged regular season matches in London for several years now, the most recent being a game between the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers at the O2 Arena , London.

The idea of a single team or pair of teams relocating to London and Berlin was dismissed as uneconomical due to the distances involved for away fixtures.

A piece on the web outlet of US sports media giant ESPN explored why British basketball has so far failed to develop players to the degree of countries such as France, Germany and Australia.

A survey by Sport England found that basketball was the third most-played sport among the 14—25 age group in England, just behind rugby union in numbers—but both sports combined have less than one-third the participation of football.

Another issue is politically related. The British government provided many sports, including basketball, with major funding in advance of the Olympics.

The sport also currently lacks private funding, with Amaechi claiming that many British BBL players are not paid living wages.

Finally, until very recent years, British players were reluctant to develop themselves in the more competitive leagues of continental Europe.

Motorcycle speedway , usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale.

The United Kingdom has three domestic leagues, the Elite League. The Speedway Grand Prix is the main world championship for standalone riders with an event taking place in Cardiff each year.

Rounders is a bat-and-ball base-running game played on a diamond. A maximum of nine players are allowed to field at any time.

Touch or Touch Rugby is a limited-contact sport variant of rugby football. It is typically played with a mixed-gender team of six three men and three women , with single-gender and age group variants.

Teams play on a 70m by 50m pitch with rolling substitutions. There are no set pieces e. Scores are made by grounding the ball over the scoreline as in Rugby Union or League; a team is allowed six touches in possession to attempt a score before the ball is turned over to the opposition.

More than a thousand players across over 40 clubs [37] are registered to play in these competitions. There are also substantial local and regional competitions, many run with the involvement of O2 Touch.

Athletics does not have a very high profile in Britain on a week-in week-out basis, but it leaps to prominence during major championships.

The level of attention received by successful British athletes is illustrated by the fact that athletes have won far more BBC Sports Personality of the Year awards than practitioners of any other sport.

There are also semi-independent athletics associations in each of the home nations. Over the last few decades British athletes have usually won between one and three gold medals at the Olympics; the Games in London saw three British athletes win four golds single golds by Jessica Ennis and Greg Rutherford , and two by Mo Farah.

However, there remain serious concerns about the depth of the sport in Britain, with the number of club athletes reportedly in decline. Two high-profile annual athletics events are the London Marathon and the Great North Run , which is a half marathon.

The United Kingdom played a key role in the evolution of modern boxing , with the codification of the rules of the sport known as the Queensberry Rules , named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in Some of the best contemporary British boxers included; super-middleweight champion Joe Calzaghe , featherweight champion Naseem Hamed , and heavyweight champion Lennox Lewis.

British professional boxing offers some of the largest purses outside the United States to a few elite professional boxers who become nationally known.

British heavyweight contenders are especially popular, but most British world champions have fought in the middle weight bracket. The governing body of professional boxing is the British Boxing Board of Control.

It is generally felt that British professional boxing is in decline in the early years of the 21st century. The reasons for this include: Amateur boxing is governed by separate bodies in each home nation.

At Olympic, World and European events, home nation boxers with the exception of N. Ireland compete under the GB podium squad banner. The amateur sport is steadily recovering from a decline that reached a peak in the late s, with dramatic increases in boxer numbers driven by recent GB podium squad success, most notably at the London Olympics.

Mixed martial arts MMA has come a huge way. The sport was on the verge of being sent into oblivion in the early s but has since clawed its way back and become one of the most popular sports in the USA.

It is hard to pinpoint the main reason why exactly this has happened. The stereotype of extreme violence that they have been unable to shake off?

However, things slowly started to change when Michael Bisping came onto the scene and won The Ultimate Fighter 3. The 2 winners of The Ultimate Fighter: A Champion Will Be Crowned.

Britain had limited success with cycle racing in the 20th century. This has changed when the performance director of British Cycling Peter Keen formerly coach of Chris Boardman and later appointed in as performance director with UK Sport obtained lottery funding which helped cycling at both grass roots and at an elite level.

The first fruits of the programme were harvested in Other successes include Rebecca Romero and Victoria Pendleton. This newfound British success continued with Chris Froome winning four of the next five Tours , , , , followed by Geraint Thomas taking victory in Emma Pooley won the world road time trial championship in Cycle racing is organised by British Cycling , who govern most cycling events in the United Kingdom and organise the national team.

The success of British Cycling and Team Sky has increased dramatically the popularity of the sport in the UK which has brought in more sponsors into the sport.

A lot of cyclists take part in the many sportives organized all over the country including the hugely popular Ride London event which. Modern competitive golf originated in Scotland.

In the early 20th century British golfers were the best in the world, winning nearly all of the US Open championships before World War I.

American golfers later became dominant, but Britain has continued to produce leading golfers, with an especially strong period in the s and s.

There are usually more British golfers than others in the top of the Official World Golf Ranking relative to population, that is to say more than a fifth as many.

In May , fellow Englishman Luke Donald reached the top of the rankings, and by the end of that year became the first golfer in history to top the money lists of both the PGA and European Tours in the same season.

Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the United Kingdom. In international team competition the United Kingdom provides a large part of the European Ryder Cup team, which has beaten the United States team in seven of the last eight events.

Tennis is yet another sport which originated in the United Kingdom, first originating in the city of Birmingham between and as a more open variant of the historical real tennis , or Royal tennis, often associated with the Tudor monarchy of Henry VIII of England.

However, it has not flourished there in recent decades: No British woman has won at Wimbledon since Virginia Wade in The governing body of the sport is the Lawn Tennis Association LTA , which invests the vast profits from the tournament in the game in the hope of producing British champions, but a string of revamps of the coaching system have failed to raise the standard of LTA-trained players.

Great Britain have won the Davis Cup ten times, with their most recent title in being their first since The British leg of the competition is the Rally Great Britain.

Derek Bell is a five-time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner and one-time winner of the km Silverstone , the major endurance race of the country, formerly part of the World Sportscar Championship and currently part of the FIA World Endurance Championship.

In the race had become the third Superbike World Championship round in Britain, but since then rounds at Silverstone and Brands Hatch have been dropped.

In rally raiding , Sam Sunderland became the first British winner of the Dakar Rally when he won the motorcycle classification in Many races are held over the UK hosted by local clubs with about , race entrants in Swimming is the largest participation sport in England according to Sport England It is larger than athletics, cycling and football.

The swimming organisations of the home countries formed an umbrella organisation called British Swimming in the year British Swimming concentrates on elite swimmers with podium potential.

Britain sends large teams to all the major international swimming events, and enjoy some successes, but it is not currently a leading swimming nation.

The sport has a thriving club structure with competition at all levels. The provision of 50 metre pools in the United Kingdom was very poor for a developed country, with just 22 as of early , only two of which conformed to the full Olympic standard.

There are however far more 25 metre short course pools and other sub Olympic-size competition pools. See List of Olympic size swimming pools in the United Kingdom.

The number of 50m pools has now increased and there are 9 full Olympic size pools including the London Aquatics Centre pool which is regarded as currently the best pool in the world.

Other sports with loyal followings include snooker , which is popular with television companies as it fills their schedules at a very low cost, and also attracts good audiences.

However, its popularity has waned somewhat since , when nearly a third of the British population watched the conclusion of the celebrated Dennis Taylor versus Steve Davis World Championship final even though it ended after midnight.

There are many amateur leagues set up across the country, featuring team matches between snooker clubs. Table Tennis is, according to Sport England a widely participated physical activity with c participants and a large number of regional clubs enrolled to English Table Tennis Association https: Darts is another British centred sport with an assured place in the attention of the British sporting public.

Phil Taylor of Stoke has won more World Championships than any other player. Sailing is also a well regarded sport in the United Kingdom.

It is governed by the RYA , and there are many locations in the United Kingdom where sailing can take place, both inland and coastal. Media coverage tends to be low, but if this were to be increased, some feel that support for the sport would increase.

The United Kingdom has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. There are many other sports in which Britons compete, sometimes with success, but which do not receive much attention outside a small number of aficionados except during major events such as the Olympics and the Commonwealth Games, or when a British athlete does something extraordinary such as breaking a world record.

Examples include judo , gliding , modern pentathlon , figure skating and sailing. Thoroughbred racing , which originated under Charles II of England as the "sport of kings", occupies a key place in British sport, probably ranking in the top four or five sports in terms of media coverage.

There are sixty racecourses in Great Britain with annual racecourse attendance exceeding six million and roughly 13, races being held across Britain and Ireland each year.

The town of Newmarket is considered the centre of English racing, largely because of the famous Newmarket Racecourse. The two forms of horseracing in the United Kingdom are National Hunt , which involves jumping over fences or hurdles, and the more glamorous flat racing.

National Hunt is a winter sport and flat racing is a summer sport, but the seasons are very long and they overlap. Other leading flat races include the 1, Guineas and The Oaks , and these five races are collectively known as the Classics.

Apart from the meetings at which the aforementioned races are staged, major flat racing meetings include Royal Ascot , Glorious Goodwood , and the Ebor Festival at York Racecourse.

The United Kingdom also played a key role in the evolution of three-day eventing and showjumping. Badminton attracts crowds of up to a quarter of a million spectators on cross country day, which is the largest for any paid-entry sports event in Britain.

The British Olympic Association is responsible for the promotion of the Olympic Movement within the United Kingdom and for the selection, leadership and management of Great Britain and Northern Ireland at every Olympic accredited event.

By longstanding practice, athletes of Northern Ireland have the option of being part of either the Great Britain or Ireland teams.

After the Summer Olympics Great Britain was third in the all-time Summer Olympic medal count ranked by gold medals , although the majority of the medals are accounted for by some very large tallies in the first few Olympic Games.

British medal tallies for much of the post-war period were generally considered disappointing, but the Summer Olympics marked an upturn and this was sustained at the Summer Olympics when Great Britain finished tenth in the medal table and the where it finished fourth behind only China, the US and Russia.

This was seen as a great success, and there was a victory parade through the streets of London. This trend continued in the Games in London.

Great Britain again finished fourth in the total medal table behind the US, China and Russia , but was third in the gold medal count behind the US and China.

The sports in which the British team has won most medals in recent Summer Olympics include rowing, sailing , cycling and athletics. In addition to the Summer Olympics, London hosted the Games in and Winter sports only play a minor role in British sporting life because the winters are not cold enough for them to be practised out of doors very much.

Great Britain is not a leading nation at the Winter Olympics , but has had a few successes in sports such as figure skating , curling and bob skeleton.

A number of athletes represented Great Britain in the freestyle skiing discipline when it debuted at the Winter Olympics. The United Kingdom has played a major role in the development of disability sport.

It has never finished outside the top five and has been second several times, including the last five games in , , , and The BBC is an enthusiastic promoter of disability sport.

In the early 20th century the United Kingdom had some of the largest sports facilities in the world, but the level of comfort and amenities they offered would be considered totally unacceptable by modern standards.

After a long period of decline relative to other developed countries British facilities have made a relative improvement since the s, and this is ongoing.

British football grounds are almost always football-only facilities in which the spectators are close to the action.

As of early there are nearly 40 all-seater club grounds in England with a capacity of 25, or more, three in Scotland and two in Wales.

English cricket grounds are smaller than the largest in some other countries, especially India and Australia , but the best of them have been modernised to a high standard, and two new international grounds have been built in recent years.

Rugby union and rugby league clubs are generally poorer than their football counterparts. Some clubs have good all seater grounds in the 10,, capacity range; some have older grounds which are still partly terraced, and others play in council -owned joint-use stadia e.

Some clubs rent stadia from football clubs. In some cases, union and league clubs share grounds; one current example of this phenomenon exists in Salford.

The United Kingdom has many world class golf courses which can accommodate crowds in the tens of thousands for tournaments. The greatest concentration of these is in Scotland.

The Open Championship is always played over a links course, the most famous venue being the Old Course at St Andrews on the east coast of Scotland.

Wentworth Club near London was once the only venue which hosted two European Tour events each season, but it now hosts only one. The provision of athletics stadiums in the United Kingdom is very poor compared to most other developed countries.

The main reason for this is that it is not considered acceptable to ask football or rugby fans to sit behind an athletics track.

This means that athletics stadiums have to be separately financed and this can only be done with public funds, which have not been forthcoming on a large scale.

The largest athletics stadium built in the United Kingdom between Second World War and the s, the 38,capacity City of Manchester Stadium built for the Commonwealth Games , was reconfigured for football-only use after that event.

Both have since been superseded by the venue now known as London Stadium , which was built as an 80, seater for the Summer Olympics and became the new home of West Ham United F.

By the time West Ham moved in, the capacity was reduced to 60,, and the track remained in place, with movable seating added to allow optimal configurations for both athletics and football.

Since the retention of the track was a necessary condition for tenancy, the Olympic Stadium won the right to host the World Championships in Athletics.

The Alexander Stadium in Birmingham is to be upgraded to a long term capacity of 25, temporarily 50, for the Commonwealth Games. There are 60 horse racecourses in Great Britain, with two more in Northern Ireland the sport is governed on an all-Ireland basis.

The best of them are world class. Silverstone Circuit , Donington Park and Brands Hatch are the three international motorsport courses.

There are several outdoor velodromes for track cycle racing in the United Kingdom with Herne Hill in London being the only venue from the Olympics still in operation.

There are also five indoor velodromes, one in Newport , the 3, seater Manchester Velodrome , part of the National Cycling Centre that serves as the headquarters of British Cycling , as well as the 6, seater arena built as part of the Summer Olympics in London, the 2, seater venue built for the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow and the 1, seater Derby Velodrome which opened in In the United Kingdom there is no indoor sport capable of attracting five-figure attendances on a regular basis, and this restricts the development of large indoor arenas.

These facilities make most of their income from pop concerts, but they occasionally stage boxing matches and other sporting events.

It also hosted the Final Four of the continent-wide EuroLeague in basketball. Several smaller arenas hosting ice hockey and basketball are found around the United Kingdom though these generally hold only a few thousand fans.

Apart from a couple of Oxbridge events, student sport has a very low profile in the United Kingdom. While universities have significant sports facilities, there was no system of sports scholarships, with tuition fees only being introduced in the late 90s.

However students who are elite standard competitors are eligible for funding from bodies such as UK Sport on the same basis as anyone else.

The university most focused on sports provision is Loughborough University. Budding professionals in the traditionally working class team sports of football and rugby league rarely go to university.

Talented youngsters in the more middle class sports of cricket and rugby union are far more likely to attend university, but their sports clubs usually play a greater role in developing their talent than their university coaches.

Some sports are attempting to adapt to new conditions in which a far higher proportion of British teenagers attend university than in the past, notably cricket, which has established several university centres of excellence.

Sport is compulsory for all students up to the age of sixteen, but the amount of time devoted to it is often small.

There are frequent complaints that state sector schools do too little to encourage sport and a healthy lifestyle. Sports culture is stronger in independent schools in the United Kingdom , and these schools contribute disproportionate numbers of elite competitors in almost all sports with the exceptions of football, rugby league, boxing and perhaps athletics.

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